Amursky grapes are very common in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and countries with similar climatic conditions. In the southern and northern regions, it quickly takes root, does not cause any special problems when grown, and regularly produces yields of tasty, juicy berries. Pro features of the variety, its advantages and disadvantages, as well as the technology of cultivation can be found below in the article.
Description of the Amur grape variety
Amur grapes are also called Ussuri. In the natural environment can be seen in the forests of South Korea, China and the Far East. Cultivated Ussuri grapes from the 50s of the XIX century. Its vine is very branchy, it is often called a liana, because it can reach 10 meters and even more up the natural fence!
Refers to mid-season species - the berries ripen in early autumn, but if you timely pruning and caring for the plant, the fruiting will come at the end of August. Each year, fruits up to 80% of the shoots of grapes. On each shoot about three large clusters are formed. Adults, large leaves have a dark green color, and young - light green. Leaf length up to 15 cm, solid, lobed or heart-shaped. Shrubs are divided into female and male, so it is important to plant on the site, and those and others, to get a rich harvest.Important! There are several subspecies of Amur grapes. They have their own characteristics and characteristics.
Clusters are cylindrical, friable. The berries have a purple color with a blue patina. The diameter of the berries to 1.2 cm. It is better to collect it for food after the first frost, as they have a positive effect on the taste of the grapes. In general, depending on the degree of maturation, the taste can be from sour to sweet and sour. The rind is thick, but not hard, and the flesh is light.
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The positive qualities of grapes, of course, play a big role when choosing a variety on the market or in the store. If the qualities are few, then the demand for the variety will be low. In the case of the Amur grape, you can list a lot of advantages by which it stands out among all kinds.
The merits of grapes Amur
- Variety Amur - fast growing. In the year the vine grows at least 2.5 meters, which allows the use of grapes for landscaping the territory.
- Cold resistance to -40 ° C allows you to grow Amur grapes in almost any climatic zone. Of course, in the north it is warmed for the winter, but even if the vine freezes, it recovers in the spring very quickly.
- The taste of the berries after the first frost only improves, so cold autumn is useful variety.
- 60-80 centners of grapes are harvested per hectare.
- There is immunity to most diseases. Pests are rarely affected.
- Not afraid of the vagaries of the weather, abrupt climate change.
- The dense, thick rind of berries allows you to transport grapes over long distances without any problems. Berries on the road do not crumple, do not spoil.
There are not many shortcomings in the variety, but they are worth listing.
- Due to the fact that the bushes grow rapidly, every year, or even several times a year, it is necessary to trim them, to form - to make sure that they do not crawl over the territory allocated for them.
- The abundance of vines adversely affects the harvest. Some clusters literally get stuck between the vines, and it is very difficult to get them without damaging them.
- Productivity suits private gardeners who grow a crop for themselves, not for sale. On a production scale, the yield is increased by artificial methods and regular pruning.
The type of planting of grapes depends on the location, climate and type of soil.
- When sandy soil is usually used landing in a trench. To do this, dig ditches with a depth of 20-30 cm, width up to 50. The walls are reinforced with wood, stones or slate, and then they are planted in these trenches. In winter, a vine with a similar planting is quite easy to bend down from frost, to create shelter.
- If the area is clay, loamy or groundwater lie shallow, then you can use the landing on the ridge. To do this, make a smooth ridge with holes, in which the landing. The depth of one hole is up to 60 cm. In the case of such a landing, it is advisable to use drainage, which is promptly placed on the bottom of the hole.
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Amur grapes are easy to care for and grow. This is one of the reasons why it is grown throughout the middle belt of Europe and Asia.
Pruning, watering grapes
- Watering is carried out regularly, moderately. The abundance of water always leads to the development of decay, the shedding of inflorescences, slower ripening of berries, so you need to know the measure. Conduct watering under the root. And a week before flowering, they are completely stopped, as well as 1-2 weeks before harvest.
- Pruning is carried out 1-2 times a year, as the vine grows incredibly fast. From 2 years old, the bush begins to form. Do not forget to cut off weak, frail, painful shoots, as well as broken vines. Extra leaves should be torn off to let the sunlight fall on the clusters, otherwise the ripening will be delayed.
- It is recommended to mulch the entire root zone. This will allow more nutrients and moisture to remain in the ground. Moss, straw, sawdust are used as mulch.
- Amursky grapes are fed about once a year with mineral fertilizers. But if the land is infertile, then you may need additional feeding from 2 to 5 times a year.
- In the spring and autumn it is worth carrying out spraying (preventive) from pests and diseases.
The harvested Amur grapes can be used to make wine, wine vinegar, raisins, juice, as well as compotes, jams, preserves. Fresh can be consumed, but not everyone likes it because of its sour taste.
Reviews of grapes Amur
If there is any doubt about the Amur grape, you should refer to the reviews of those who have already dealt with it.
- Elena Kotsenko: “A few years ago I decided to decorate the fence with some kind of climbing plant and chose Amur grapes. For 2 years he completely woven him and I was absolutely pretty. Besides the decorative look he is happy with huge crops and this is despite the fact that I don’t take care of him at all! goes for the most part on a delicious wine. "
- Oleg Ovsyanko: "I love the Amur grape because it is not afraid of frost. It’s a pleasure to grow it - they remove the excess vine and water it, nothing more! Despite the cold weather in winter under -35, the vine never died out."
- Vitaly Leshchenko: “The Amur grape variety was bought a few years ago. At first, the bush was growing, then, when it was supposed to give out clusters - they were not there. And then I noticed that it had flowers for men. Last year they also planted a female bush near , I hope this year or next will delight the harvest! ".