Zinia - a beautiful plant that can decorate any flower garden, flower bed and landscape. It is also used in the creation of bouquets, flower arrangements. In nature, there are dwarf, tall species of a wide variety of varieties. This article gives its description, the main types, as well as recommendations for planting and care.
What is Zinia?
Zinia belongs to annual plants from the Asteraceae family of Asteraceae. She comes from Mexico, from where she was brought to Europe in the XVIII century. It is grown up in a garden, on beds, in flower beds. It is often used in landscape design due to the beautiful, multi-colored flowers that fit well into different compositions.
Photo of Zinnia flower with seedsInteresting! The name "Zinnia" was given in honor of the famous botanist Johann Zinna. In the people, these beautiful flowers are called "majors".
The culture is usually a straight, upright stem covered with short fibers. On it are formed on both sides of a rough heart-shaped leaves. Flowering is long from June to late autumn. Buds can be pink, red, purple, orange or white. The diameter of the open flower is 5-12 cm.
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Majors are a group of flowers that can differ in stem height, type of inflorescences. In the world there are more than 20 species of zinnia and many varieties. So what types and varieties of zinnia are there?
- Zinnia graceful - the most common species cultivated almost everywhere. In height, the stem can grow in the range of 25-100 cm. The shoots are tough, durable, with baskets at the top. The color of the buds can be orange, white, pink.
- Cinnamon grows in the range of 60-90 cm. Bushes spreading or compact (depending on the variety). The shoots of the first order, the leaves are green, can reach 12 cm. The inflorescences in diameter reach 14 cm. Among the most famous varieties, Violet, Polar Bear, and Orange König should be distinguished.
- Zinia Pompon grows in a compact, branched bush, no more than 55 cm high. Shoots gives second, third and fourth order. The leaves are small, green. The inflorescences are small, up to 5 cm wide, and in form resemble a pom-pom (hence the name). The best varieties of "Little Red Riding Hood", "Tambelina", "Tom Tumb".
Photo of Zinnia graceful (Zinnia elegans)
- Zinnia Fantasy - A type of culture growing in a small bush (height 50-65 cm) of spherical shape. The leaves are large, beautiful. Flowers can be a different color, quite voluminous. Petals rolled in tubes or curved in different directions. Grades: "Gift", "Fantasy".
- Leaf Zinnia - annual plant forming branched bushes. Sheet plastics elongated or lanceolate. Inflorescences are small, orange, simple or terry. The best varieties: "Classic", "Starbright", "Sombrero", "Glorienshayn".
- Zinnia linearis - A species that looks like a narrow-leaved because it has thin leaves. However, it is still a separate species, popular with gardeners. Bushes spherical, grow up to 35 cm in height. Inflorescences are small. Reed flowers with orange edges, but there may be other shades. Suitable for alpine slides. Among the best varieties emit "Golden ah", "Caramel".
There are also such famous zinnias as the California giant, Giant cactus flower, Super cactus flower, Scabiosa flower. New varieties are displayed annually, so the choice in stores and the Internet is huge.
Where to plant zinnia
Stock Foto Zini Dahlia
Zinnia to growth conditions is quite demanding. If the earth, lighting, care, do not meet its needs, the flowers will be small and not bright, it is possible that the stem and buds will be deformed. So it is important to take care not only about choosing a good variety, but also to find a good place for it to grow. The plot is selected protected from strong wind, sunny.Important! In the shade majors can grow as well as in the sun, but flowering will be scarce and rare.
The land in which zinnias can grow should be fertile, rich in humus, aerated, with an acidity of 7-8. In poor quality land, it will not be able to develop and blossom normally. Before planting seedlings or sowing seeds, you must mix the soil with compost. In addition, you can add minerals, wood ash or dilute it with sand, peat, so that it is soft, crumbly.
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Photo of Zinnia Pompon
Cultivation from seeds can be carried out from mid-May, when the last frosts pass. Seeds do not germinate quickly, and such plants develop for a long time, so flowering can be observed only in July or from August. The majors' flowers will be simple but beautiful. Sow them usually with other flowers, right in the ground. To get the earlier shoots, you can cover the crops with a film.Important! Majors can not stand the cold wind. So if you sow the seeds in the ground very early, during the return frost or cold snaps, they will need to be covered, making an improvised greenhouse.
After the seeds germinate, you can remove the film. The plants are covered with it again only under the threat of cold, storms or similar cataclysms.
When to plant seedlings
The seedling method of growing zinnia is more laborious than seed. However, it is believed that this way of growing zinnia allows you to get not only large but also beautiful flowers with a rich color. Sowing in cassettes for seedlings carried out from March to April. The temperature for seed germination should be + 18 ... +20 degrees. In this case, the shoots will appear in 5-7 days.
Photo Zinnia fantasy
Young sprouts need to be trimmed from the sun, not watered very often, so that the earth has time to dry out. After the appearance of the first leaf, the seedlings are seated in individual cups or in a large container, with a distance of 5 cm between the seedlings. From the first days of May the seedlings begin to harden, taking them outside, to a balcony or simply opening the window for ventilation. At first, the quenching time should last 30 minutes, but you can increase it a little every day.
Stretched seedlings what to do
In case of late planting, picks, failure to comply with the temperature regime, the seedlings may stretch. What if this happens? You can save the majors by simply picking. Plants are seated with the stem deepening, sprinkling in the hole so that the extra length of the stem is in the ground. Over time, roots will form on it, and the culture will become stronger.Important! Since the stem of such plants is brittle and thin, when final planting in open ground, they should be tied up so that they do not break from the wind until they get stronger.
Stock Foto Zinnia narrow-leaved sombrero
Planting in open ground
In the open ground can be planted zinnia in the second half of May. Tall plants are planted in such a way that between shoots is about 30 cm, and dwarf plants with a distance of 15 cm. Most often, planting is carried out in separate pits. If the seedlings remain in the harvest, you can sow them when planting seedlings. Thus, some plants will bloom earlier, and others later. After planting seedlings in a permanent place, you need to leave the seedlings for 1-2 weeks, so that they take root. From leaving at this time, only timely watering is necessary.
Beautiful flowers, rich color foliage, zinnias give, if you provide them with full care.
- Drought majors can not tolerate. After planting in a flower bed, they must be watered in a timely manner so as not to dry. In dry times, water is introduced more frequently, and less often during rains.
- It is advisable to do weeding regularly - after watering, rains, so that the earth is not taken with a dense crust.
- Weeds next to these flowers are uprooted.
Photo of Zinius linearis Caramel
- After planting, after 2 weeks, you can begin to fertilize the crop. Experts recommend making liquid fertilizer for flowerbed, flower plants every 14 days, but it can be a little less.
- To make plants less sick, weeds do not grow, many gardeners spend mulching plantings.
- All dry leaves, flowering inflorescences, must be cut.
Proper care and timely feeding, allow you to receive from the plant more beautiful, bright flowers.
Diseases and pests on flowers
Zinnia can affect gray mold, Alternaria, sclerotinia, powdery mildew. These diseases can not only worsen the appearance of the culture, but also reduce the number of flower stalks produced by zinnia and completely destroy the plant. So you need to deal with them when the first signs of illness appear. Specialized fungicides like Tattu, Quadrice, Bravo, Acrobat, Previkur Energy are used to treat.
Of the pests, the most problems arise with scoops, aphids, snails, midges of various types. What to do with them in case of appearance? For a start, you can treat with soapy water or sprinkle with wood ash, but these popular methods help to cope with only a small number of insects. If a large colony settled on the flowers, the insecticides Aktara, Aktellik, Karbofos, Decis, Prestige and the like can be used to fight. With timely introduction, the plant can be saved, and it will bloom in time, delighting gardeners with its amazing flowers.