Growing cucumbers in the greenhouse is quite a laborious process. But if done correctly, you can get a huge harvest of tasty, smooth and beautiful cucumbers, suitable for processing, fresh consumption or sale. About the care of cucumbers in the greenhouse with all the details and nuances will be discussed below in the article.
What soil is needed for cucumbers?
Soil for cucumbers
Land for planting cucumbers harvested long before planting. The main condition for the land - friability. Loose soil allows you to saturate the roots with oxygen, and this has a positive effect not only on the plant itself, but also on the taste and juiciness of the greens. If the soil is clay, heavy, it must be diluted with sand, peat.Important! The acidity of the soil as cucumbers grow can vary greatly. The reason is that the culture is sometimes fed with fertilizers that reduce or increase the acidity of the soil.
The ideal option for planting cucumbers is a mixture of equal parts of manure, turf, humus and peat. The acidity of such a soil should be in the range of 6-7 pH. If it is higher or lower, then it is worth adjusting it to normal levels with lime or dolomite flour. But, in addition, it is important not only to plant sprouts in good land. Caring for cucumbers in a greenhouse involves checking the pH of the soil several times per season. If the acidity has increased, wood ash or similar plant-friendly additives are added to the ground.
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Air temperature and humidity in the greenhouse
For growing cucumbers need a certain temperature and humidity. Therefore, it is advisable to plant the crop in a greenhouse with a microclimate control system, as it allows you to set the desired temperature and humidity and maintain it for a long time. So, what temperature do cucumbers need?
- In the first week of growth of saplings in the greenhouse, the temperature is maintained at +20 degrees. It can be a little higher, but the main thing is not lower.
- From the second week you can slightly reduce the average temperature to + 18 ... +20 degrees Celsius. This will be more than enough for the development of culture, increasing green mass, flowering.
- After the appearance of the first fruits, the temperature rises again, but already to + 22 ... +24 degrees in the afternoon. +18 degrees is acceptable at night.
Caring for cucumbers in a greenhouse involves adjusting humidity and not just temperature. For cucumbers, it is always maintained at a high level. Before the start of fruiting, the 80% mark is appropriate, and after the appearance of the first young cucumbers, it is raised to 85-90%.
Peculiarities of irrigation and irrigation
Irrigation and watering
Watering cucumbers in greenhouses should be carried out with cool or lukewarm water. Water is brought to the desired temperature by heating in the sun. To do this, in the early morning you need to pour water into the barrels and put them in a sunny place, and when it warms up a little, use it for watering. If it is overheated, before watering it is diluted in a watering can with cold water. The best time to water cucumbers is in the evening, after 18-19 hours.Important! You can not use for irrigation of cucumbers in the greenhouse ice, well water or water sprouts from a hose. For a start, strong pressure hoses can damage fragile stems and roots, and secondly ice water for cucumbers in a warm greenhouse will be a real shock.
The number of waterings before flowering is reduced to 1-2 times per day - depending on how quickly the water leaves the soil. Per square meter accounts for an average of 7-10 liters of water. After the start of flowering, watering is reduced, so that the cucumbers do not grow much and all their forces go into flowers and ovaries. Watering such cucumbers should be no more than 1 time per day or a little less.
If the humidity in the greenhouse decreases, it is possible to irrigate the landings. A small "rain" will only be useful for sprouts, while increasing humidity. And since there is no direct sunlight in the greenhouse, you should not be afraid of the burns on the leaves.
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Feeding cucumbers in the greenhouse
Caring for cucumbers in the greenhouse involves the timely application of fertilizer. During the season, cucumbers are fed about 5-6 times.
- The first feeding is done 2 weeks after transplanting the seedlings into the greenhouse. By this time they will take root and they will need strength for further development. Ammonia mixtures are used for this.
- When the cucumbers start growing, they can be fed with urea again to increase the number of leaves. Under each bush it is also worth making some wood ash to scare away spring pests. This feeding is usually carried out after the first pinching, if it is done at all.
- The third time you need fertilizing at the beginning of flowering. It allows you to increase the number of buds, and hence the future ovaries. Used for this potassium sulphate per 10 g per 10 liters of water.
- During the growth of the fruit also does not interfere with fertilizer, but only proven - harmless, without nitrates and other harmful substances, so that they are not deposited in the fruit. Recommended humus, peat, sawdust and other organic mixtures, infusions.
- Wood ash is introduced as cucumber grows, both as a fertilizer and as a substance that protects crops from pests and diseases. It does not harm the taste of the fruit, so it can be made at any stage of growth, but most importantly at the root, and not on top of the plant. Since during the flowering of ash on the buds can lead to the fact that insects will not pollinate them.
Pinching allows you to get more juicy Zelentsy in larger quantities. Such a plant will draw less moisture from the ground, as well as the leaves, lashes it will be less. But this procedure must be able to carry out.Important! Not all cucumber varieties need pinching. So before carrying out the procedure it is necessary to clarify the features of a particular variety (hybrid), so as not to harm the culture.
As the plant grows, it is necessary to remove excess leaves and ovaries so that the culture can give all its power to the development of the main crop. After all, if there are a lot of sheets or cucumbers on the stem, they simply cannot fully develop. The first pinching is done after the appearance of 4 leaflets on the main stem. At the same time, all stepchildren break down that appeared below 4 leaves. After that, the plant becomes attached to the trellis to start growing upwards. All subsequent pinching are sent to the rationing of the number of leaves and ovaries.
Additional rates of care
Weeding and garter cucumber
In addition to the above standards for the care of cucumbers in the greenhouse, there are also secondary points that you should not forget.
- Weeding is done to aerate the soil. It is important as well as irrigation, because if the earth takes a crust all sorts of diseases can begin to develop.
- Caring for cucumbers in the greenhouse includes cleaning weeds during weeding.
- As they grow, cucumbers become tied to a trellis if they are not grown using the creeping method.
- If cucumbers are not self-pollinated, then in the period of budding, it is necessary to provide insects access to flowers. To do this, the windows and doors of the greenhouse open and try different delicacies (sugar syrup, honey) to lure the bees into the greenhouse. If the plant is self-pollinated, then there is no need for this procedure.
- From time to time it is necessary to ventilate the greenhouse so that the air inside does not stagnate.
- If the leaves, stems, flowers show signs of illness, pests, it is recommended to take cardinal measures immediately. When the fruit is not yet available, you can use different insecticides and fungicides, but during fruiting it is not recommended to use such preparations in order not to harm the quality and taste of green men. From harmless remedies fit homemade decoctions of the grass, wood ash, microclimate adjustment.
Cucumbers in greenhouses grow quickly, and the harvest is much larger and of higher quality. But caring for cucumbers in a greenhouse is not as simple as it may seem. To obtain significant benefits, it is important to follow all the rules and not to neglect the basic rules. However, the time and energy spent in the greenhouse will fully pay for itself.