To obtain the maximum amount of the crop, it is necessary to use top dressing during the growing season. Top-dressing of winter wheat may vary significantly depending on the time of its use. At each of the periods of plant growth, he needs different elements - certain means are used. The article will describe the technology, the time of application and the types of dressings used for winter wheat.
When to feed?
Top dressing for winter wheat should be made throughout the entire growing season of the plant, which is at least in the fall, spring and summer. If possible, fertilizers can be applied more often, they will not harm: in the fall, before planting, the soil is fertilized, then in spring during plant growth, planting, flowering, development of tubes, earing special substances are introduced to support and improve crop growth.
When to feed
If you make the dressings correctly and in the right amount, they will not spoil the wheat, but if you add them above the norm, the plant may disappear or the taste of the grains will simply deteriorate.
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Wheat, like any other crop, needs certain substances for active growth and development. The following are the most important elements that make winter wheat grow quickly, rarely get sick and give a rich harvest.
- Nitrogen - badly needed sprouts in the spring, when there is an active growth of all plants. It depends bushiness and quality, the amount of grain in the ears.
The physiological role of nutrients for winter wheat
- Phosphorus improves the composition of the soil, affects the activity of nitrogen absorption by the plant, increases the resistance of the culture to cooling. Also affects the taste and quality of the grains.
- Potassium plays a role in the formation of proteins, sugar. It acts in the intercellular exchange processes. Affects the development of the root system.
These three elements are most important for winter wheat. But besides them, the plant needs boron, sulfur, manganese, zinc, magnesium, and calcium. The last two are actively involved in plant metabolic processes. In small doses, some of them are available in complex fertilizers, but if it is necessary to increase the rate, it is easiest to purchase these substances separately and simply mix them in top dressing.
What fertilizers to choose for wheat?
The means used to improve the quality of land and plants depend on the time of their introduction. Fertilizer used to feed winter wheat throughout the growing season should contain an abundance of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
In the autumn before winter, the earth should be fertilized with complex substances. At this time, “Superphosphate” (200 kg / ha) can be applied with the addition of “Potassium salt” (200 kg / ha). As for nitrogen, in the fall about 300 kg / ha of soil with normal values are applied directly to the ground with other minerals. As you can see, the ratio of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus to the soil of about 1.5: 1: 1 is the golden mean, as most experts believe.
Influence of top dressing on winter wheat
Often in the fall used organic substances - manure. If the rate of humus in the soil does not exceed 2%, it is necessary to deposit 35 tons of substance per hectare of land. To improve the quality of the soil on chernozem apply no more than 20 t / ha.
It is important to note that there are no exact fertilization rates, it all depends on the quality of the land, its acidity, and fertility. In order to find out the exact figures, it is necessary to make an analysis of the soil, it will show what the earth lacks, and what is available in abundance.
The application rates for winter wheat are also dependent on what kind of crop the farmer intends to get. With a yield of 10 centners per hectare, on average 37 kg of nitrogen, 13 kg of phosphorus and 21 kg of potassium will be taken from the soil by plants. It is this amount that must be replenished throughout the entire growing season of the crop so that the land is not impoverished.
Do not forget that fertilizing the land for the winter, before sowing, it is necessary to balance its acidity; for this, lime or dolomite flour is added. But this procedure is necessary only on acidic soils.
External manifestations of making feedings
In spring and summer, mineral substances are usually used, it is easier to work with them. For spring feeding, which is carried out no later than March, nitrogen mixtures are used. An average of 45 kg of ammonium nitrate is taken per hectare. In the summer you can use urea (urea).
Urea is a universal top dressing for winter-type wheat. It can be used during the formation of the bush, flowering, going on the tube, earing - that is, in different periods of development. If urea is introduced into the ground, then an average of 150 kg / ha is needed. In the case of irrigation and crop irrigation, solutions of different concentrations are used:
- spring - 20%;
- during the flowering period - 20%;
- during the call-out period - 11%;
- during earing - 8% solution.
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Depending on the type of top dressing of winter wheat, it can be used in a different way. In case of sowing of winter species, the plot is fertilized from the end of August. Then the procedure is repeated in the first half of September. Organic matter and minerals in the fall are always brought into the ground before planting wheat. At the same time, the soil is qualitatively plowed up and left for a week or two.
In the spring, you can use a very simple method. Fertilizers (ammonium nitrate and phosphorus-potassium mixtures, if they were not introduced in the autumn) are laid directly over the snow that has not yet melted in early spring. Only in this case a double dose of nitrogenous substances is used, and phosphorus and potassium are taken not more than the norm! The fact is that nitrogen is a volatile substance, as long as the snow melts, it can evaporate. If, however, to lay a double standard, then along with the melting of snow, the fat will saturate the earth and young wheat sprouts to the full.
Urea or urea can be used in different ways. In case of fertilizing the land, you just need to sprinkle it on the soil and pour plenty of water on it. You can also use root and foliar application for plants. Use them in cloudy weather, but it is important that it does not rain if top dressing is foliar!